Discover why the universe exists… and put it beyond

Indeed, apart from the main problem of the matter-antimatter asymmetry, the Standard Model, for example, does not provide an answer to the great mystery of missing mass – which includes the well-known concepts of dark matter and dark energy. It also presents an elusive problem called “hierarchy,” the giant gap physicists observe between the weak interaction responsible for particle decay and the gravitational interaction. The latter is 100,000 billion billion billion times less! “These hiccups may seem anecdotal, breathes David London, from the University of Montreal in Canada. But for us, they are a clear signal that the standard model is not perfect. that it is not the end of the story.”

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Knowing that other physics must exist beyond the Standard Model, theorists have created many extensions to it in recent decades. Supersymmetry, extra dimensions, grand unification, massive neutrinos… there is no shortage of ideas. But how to classify? It is thanks to the CP symmetry breaking experiments that can give physicists the direction of digging. Undoubtedly, their results will lead to constraints that models will have to respond to… either current or entirely new.

Already, not to mention throwing everything into question, these experiments could help us clarify some well-accepted concepts, such as the exact moment when the matter-antimatter asymmetry appeared.

This would happen during baryogenesis, the formation of baryons: in any case, this is what the Russian-born physicist Andrei Sakharov argued in 1967. (see p. 70). Except that most physicists now recognize that this phase stems from another process called leptogenesis, which corresponds to the production of leptons, or electrons, muons, tau, and neutrinos.

Why does the world exist? New ways of research

“According to cosmological models, this phase preceded the formation of baryons by a short time. And it could already happen asymmetrically! says cosmologist Laura Covey from the University of Göttingen in Germany. But we know that there is an equivalence between the number of leptons and The number of baryons in the universe. In this case, it would be the basic asymmetry of the leptons that produced the baryons; Therefore, the source of our problem will be further up. Through the neutrino-lepton oscillation and the possible CP violation observed in the T2K experiment in Japan, physicists hope to solve the problem… and perhaps rewrite the universe’s first moments for the same event.

Also, this potential breaking of CP symmetry may lead to the consolidation of certain new models that aim to explain them without adding particles and interactions. Depending on their form and intensity, these anomalies can be easily explained by readjusting certain parameters specific to the existing standard model.

Finally, these results can be used to challenge the most iconoclastic theories. “Some, like supersymmetry, postulate the existence of new particles of very high mass, signs of which we have not yet seen in particle accelerators. Illustrated by theorist Nazila Mahmoud, from Cern. However, if they did exist, these particles could play a role in some manifestation of aberrant CP symmetry breaking! Also, depending on the results of these experiments, we can adopt research paths in favor of this model, or, on the contrary, collect evidence that will make it less and less plausible.” The future of physics is still uncertain… but one thing is certain: it is written in anomalies.

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